Данные установки колес 2013
Wheel Alignment Terminology
Wheel Toe (Fig.1)
The toe setting is the amount by which the front or rear wheels point inwards or outwards at the front of the wheel in relation to each other. When the wheels point inwards they are said to toe-in. Toe-in figures are given a positive value. Conversely when the wheels point outwards they are said to toe-out and the figures are shown as a negative value.
The purpose of correct toe is to ensure that the wheels run parallel when the vehicle is in motion. An incorrect toe setting may affect the stability and controllability of the vehicle.
Wheel toe can be measured as an angle or a linear dimension depending upon the equipment used.
Toe-out-on-turns is the difference in angles between each front wheel and the centre line of the vehicle when the steering is turned. The steering linkage is designed to allow the inner wheel to turn through a smaller radius to minimise tyre scrub.
There should be no difference in angle (A) when the steering is turned to the left or right, taking into consideration manufacturer's tolerances.
Camber Angle (Fig.3)
If the road wheel leans outwards from the vertical, it is said to have i positive camber (B) and when leaning inwards from the vertical negative camber (C), looking from the front or rear of the vehicle.
The effect of camber can be compared with the tendency of a cone to roll towards its small end (A). Therefore, wheels which are both set at a positive camber angle have the tendency to roll away from each ' other while wheels set at a negative camber angle will roll towards each other.
Camber angle is measured in degrees with the wheels in the straight-ahead position.
King Pin Inclination (KPI) & Included Angle (Fig.4)
KPI is the angle of inclination of the kingpin towards the centre-line of the vehicle from the vertical (A).
On systems which use swivel joints the king pin is effectively the line drawn through the steering axis of the joints, hence the term Steering Axis Inclination (SAI).
The Included Angle is the camber angle plus the king pin angle (B). Lines drawn through the camber angle and the king pin angle will intersect. If the lines intersect below the road surface, the dimension is described as positive scrub radius (C). If the two lines intersect above the road surface the dimension is called negative scrub radius.
A small scrub radius will contribute to steering stability. On vehicles with diagonally split brake circuits negative scrub radius stabilises the steering when the braking forces of the front wheels are unequal.
Castor Angle (Fig.5)
The castor angle is the tilting of the kingpin either forwards or backwards from the vertical, as seen from the side of the vehicle. Castor angle influences the directional stability of the steering. To increase the tendency of the steering to self-centre, the steering will normally be designed with positive castor.
Others books on repair and servicing of :
- manual wheel installation
- repair Electrical Component Locations
- Instructions for operation car conditioner
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